Tenochtitlan (iné názvy pozri nižšie) bolo hlavné mesto Aztéckej ríše v strede dnešného hlavného mesta Mexika. Cortés dismounted and was greeted by the ruler and his lords, but forbidden to touch him. Print. © 1996 - 2021 National Geographic Society. Meaning of Tenochtitlan. The pipiltin were noblemen who were relatives of leaders and former leaders, and lived in the confines of the island. Bol založený v roku 1325 (alebo 1310) a z väčšej časti zničený v … It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. At its peak, it was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas. Estimated to be 12 to 16 km (7.5 to 9.9 mi) in length, the levee was completed circa 1453. De Stadt worr in’t 14.Johrhunnert grünnt. Places like this also existed in Texcoco, Chapultepec, Huaxtepec (now called Oaxtepec), and Texcotzingo.[12]. The skins, feet, and hands of captured Spaniards were sent around the country as a warning to other tribes. At first, it wasn't a … large home or mansion, often the home of a leader or dignitary. There were also specialized markets in the other central Mexican cities. In Aztec mythology the founders of the city migrated from the legendary Aztlán cave in the northwest desert which involved a protracted journey that eventually led to Lake Texcoco. [40] The burial dates back to the 1480s, ie before Cortez, and lies at the foot of the main temple in the sacred ceremonial precinct of the Aztec capital. The bones are from children, teenagers and adults. This stone is 4 meters (13 ft 1 in) in diameter and weighs over 20 short tons (17.9 long tons; 18.1 metric tons). National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico City, monument commemorating the foundation of Tenochtitlan, "Newspaper About the Country that the Spaniards Found in 1521, Called Yucatan", "City Size in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tenochtitlan&oldid=1000081935, 14th-century establishments in the Aztec civilization, Populated places established in the 1320s, 16th-century disestablishments in the Aztec civilization, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from November 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from January 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. All constructions had to be approved by the calmimilocatl, a functionary in charge of the city planning. The city extended from north to south, from the north border of Tlatelolco to the swamps, which by that time were gradually disappearing to the west; the city ended more or less at the present location of Avenida Bucareli. The aquarium had ten ponds of salt water and ten ponds of fresh water, containing various fish and aquatic birds. The center of the city was known as the Templo Mayor. There was also a botanical garden and an aquarium. Status was displayed by location and type of house where a person lived. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Adding even more complexity to Aztec social stratification was the calpolli. Symptoms were often delayed for up to ten days, when the infection would spread throughout the body, causing sores, pain, and high fever. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. [8] The calpullis were divided by channels used for transportation, with wood bridges that were removed at night. Each of the four sectors had its own services, including a religious precinct, and was occupied by craftspeople like weavers, sculptors, and potters. Collins English Dictionary. The Aztec calendar stone was located in the ruins. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. [40], .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}19°26′06″N 99°07′53″W / 19.43500°N 99.13139°W / 19.43500; -99.13139 (Templo Mayor)Coordinates: 19°26′06″N 99°07′53″W / 19.43500°N 99.13139°W / 19.43500; -99.13139 (Templo Mayor), For the municipality in the Mexican state of Veracruz, see, Former city-state in the Valley of Mexico, Model of the temple district of Tenochtitlan at the, Bernal Diaz Del Castillo, "The Discovery And Conquest Of Mexico 1517 1521", Edited by Genaro Garcia, Translated with an Introduction and Notes?, pp. [10], Outside was the palace of Moctezuma with 100 rooms, each with its own bath, for the lords and ambassadors of allies and conquered people. Charles Gibson devotes the final chapter of his classic work, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, to what he called "The City,"[31] with later historians building on his work. When they saw this exact scene on an island (located in what … Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire, was founded by the Aztec or Mexica people around 1325 C.E. In 2011, the Mexican government dissolved due to chaotic events surrounding the first outbreak of VITAS and was replaced by a provisional government. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006. For a time this ciudad de españoles, the highest rank in the Spanish hierarchy of settlement designation, was called Mexico–Tenochtitlan. The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east. Sustainability Policy |  Superior weaponry and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish to … He captured three natives and tortured them until they said that this[clarification needed] was indeed true. The Mexica saw this vision on what was then a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco, a vision that is now immortalized in Mexico's coat of arms and on the Mexican flag. Tenochtitlan eventually reached an area of more than 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Not deterred by the unfavourable terrain, they set about building their city, using the chinampa system (misnamed as "floating gardens") for agriculture and to dry and expand the island. article 23. It was once located half-way up the great pyramid. Definition of Tenochtitlan in the Definitions.net dictionary. The date 13 March 1325 was chosen in 1925 to celebrate the 600th anniversary of the city. These groups consist of both elite members of Aztec society and commoners. [21], They were then brought to a large house that would serve as their home for their stay in the city. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. In addition, they engaged in a series of alliances both with and against their neighbors; the most successful was … The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other water traffic to pass freely. Calnek, Edward. [24], When they arrived, they were captured and two were killed, the other two escaping through the woods. A complete skeleton of a young woman was also found at the site. Despite the extensive damage to the built environment, the site retained symbolic power and legitimacy as the capital of the Aztec empire, which Cortés sought to appropriate. Toussaint, Manuel, Federico Gómez de Orozco, and Justino Fernández, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 13:47. The largest of them was Lake Texcoco. Although many native residents died during the siege of Tenochtitlan, the indigenous still had a strong presence in the city, and were settled in two main areas of the island, designated San Juan Tenochtitlan and Santiago Tlatelolco, each with a municipal council that functioned the entire colonial period. Glass and Robertson. The Destruction Of Tenochtitlan Wikimedia Commons Two years after Cortés landed on the coast of Mexico with an army of soldiers, he completely destroyed Tenochtitlan. (tĕ-nōch′tē-tlän′) An ancient Aztec capital on the site of present-day Mexico City. The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. Tenochtitlan (Nahuatl languages: Tenōchtitlan pronounced [tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan]; Spanish: Tenochtitlán), also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan (Nahuatl languages: Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan pronounced [meːˈʃiʔko tenoːt͡ʃˈtit͡ɬan]; Spanish: México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica altepetl in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The complex system involved many social classes. The city is located in modern Mexico City. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city. At the time of Spanish conquests, Mexico City comprised both Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco. Also located nearby was the cuicalli, or house of the songs, and the calmecac.[11]. One of the few comprehensive academic surveys of Mesoamerican city and town sizes arrived at a population of 212,500 living on 13.5 km2 (5.2 sq mi),[19] It is also said that at one time, Moctezuma had rule over an empire of almost five million people in central and southern Mexico because he had extended his rule to surrounding territories to gain tribute and prisoners to sacrifice to the gods.[8]. "Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco: the Natural History of a City." ", Calnek, Edward. an ancient city and capital of the Aztec empire on the present site of Mexico City; razed by Cortés in 1521. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the "levee of Nezahualcoyotl" was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl. What does Tenochtitlan mean? having to do with a habitat or ecosystem of a lake, river, or spring. [citation needed], The people of Tenochtitlan were soon exposed to diseases to which they had no immunity. Mexico City is founded on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan was an ancient city built by the Aztecs on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1325. noun. Tenochtitlan was the capital city and center of the Aztec Empire. Tenochtitlán - Die Hauptstadt der Azteken. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. In, Mundy, Barbara E. "Mapping the Aztec Capital: the 1524 Nuremberg Map of Tenochtitlan, Its Sources and Meanings. There were three main streets that crossed the city, each leading to one of the three causeways to the mainland of Tepeyac, Iztapalapa, and Tlacopan. [7] Teteuctin were the highest class, rulers of various parts of the empire, including the king. Tenochtitlan was laid out symmetrically, with four sectors separated by four causeways or canals surrounding the central area. Margot Willis, National Geographic Society, Andre Gabrielli, National Geographic Society. It was founded in 1325 and served as the capital until the Aztecs were conquered by Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes in 1520. The death toll rose steadily over the course of the next 60 days.[30][when? The resulting weight of the structures caused them to sink into the sediment of Lake Texcoco; the ruins now rest at an angle instead of horizontally. "Tenochtitlan in the Early Colonial Period." The World Heritage Site of Xochimilco contains what remains of the geography (water, boats, floating gardens) of the Mexica capital. They drank a beverage made from the maguey plant, which was also used to make clothes and rope. [17], Although some popular sources put the number as high as 350,000,[18] the most common estimates of the population are of over 200,000 people. The state religion of the Mexica civilization awaited the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy: the wandering tribes would find the destined site for a great city whose location would be signaled by an eagle with a snake in its beak perched atop a cactus (Opuntia). San Juan Tenochtitlan was a Spanish administrative creation, which amalgamated four indigenous sections, with each losing territory to the Spanish traza. practice of removing blood to prevent illness or disease. The palace of Moctezuma II also had two houses or zoos, one for birds of prey and another for other birds, reptiles, and mammals. ", Mundy, Barbara E. "Place-Names in Mexico-Tenochtitlan.". The exact date of the founding of the city is unclear. Pochteca could become very rich because they did not pay taxes, but they had to sponsor the ritual feast of Xocotl Huetzi from the wealth that they obtained from their trade expeditions. They most likely made up the house complexes that were arranged around the inner court. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Located at the site of modern Mexico City, it was founded c. 1325 in the marshes of Lake Texcoco. Tenochtitlan of the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. was excellently suited as a place for the Aztec culture to begin the conquest of Mesoamerica. Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2 (3.1 to 5.2 sq mi), situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. Tenochtitlan was one of two Mexica āltepētl (city-states or polities) on the island, the other being Tlatelolco. [8] Having gained control, he then directed the systematic destruction and leveling of the city;[28] and began its rebuilding, despite opposition. Tenochtitlan bol pôvodne vybudovaný na dvoch malých ostrovoch v jazere Texcoco v centrálnom Mexiku. The Spanish established a Europeans-only zone in the center of the city, an area of 13 blocks in each direction of the central plaza, which was the traza. November 1519 erreicht der spanische Eroberer Hernán Cortéz die Azteken-Hauptstadt Tenochtitlan. Townsend, Camilla. Bylo založeno v roce 1325 a později od roku 1428 se stalo vedoucím členem a hlavním městem Aztécké říše, a to do roku 1521. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century[2] until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. In the colonial period both San Juan Tenochtitlan and Santiago Tlatelolco retained jurisdiction over settlements on the mainland that they could draw on for labor and tribute demanded by the Spanish, but increasingly those subordinate settlements (sujetos) were able to gain their autonomy with their own rulers and separate relationship with the Spanish rulers. Glass, John B. in collaboration with Donald Robertson. Along the way the Méxica settled at different s… [27], Cortés subsequently besieged Tenochtitlan for over 90 days, causing a famine. Code of Ethics. ][clarification needed], Cortés founded the Spanish capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Dat weer woll üm 1500 een vun de gröttsten Städer up de Eer. WORD OF … National Geographic Headquarters He requested that officials be sent to him so that he could confirm his submission. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl [ˈtetɬ] ("rock") and nōchtli [ˈnoːtʃtɬi] ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean, "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". Mijiku-Tenochtitlan (kastilla : México-Tenochtitlan, Plantilla:IPA-es), Tenochtitlan ukham uñt'atawa, ukhamarak khaysa Texcoco qutankiwa, Mexico qhirwa uraqina. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Cortes’s army besieged Tenochtitlan for 93 days. [36] Anthropologist Susan Kellogg has studied colonial-era inheritance patterns of Nahuas in Mexico City, using Nahuatl- and Spanish-language testaments. According to legend, the Aztec people left their home city of Aztlan nearly 1,000 years ago. They did not eat much meat, what they did eat were dogs, ducks, and turkeys. Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Also, the upper classes and pregnant women washed themselves in a temāzcalli, similar to a sauna bath, which is still used in the south of Mexico. In. Tenochtitlán umfaßte ca. Commercial routes were developed that brought goods from places as far as the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Ocean and perhaps even the Inca Empire.[14]. Calnek, Edward. Huitzilopochtli directed them to build where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a snake. The ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is the source of a flood of fascinating history. Finally, the pochteca were merchants who traveled all of Mesoamerica trading. 269–, A. P. Maudslay, first pub 1928. Acamapichtli, the first tlatoani (ruler) The small natural island was perpetually enlarged as Tenochtitlan grew to become the largest and most powerful city in Mesoamerica. n. [ tɛnotʃti-] die auf einer Insel im See von Mexico gelegene, durch Dämme mit dem Festland verbundene ehemalige Hauptstadt der Azteken, deren Pracht H. Cortés als Gast Motecuzomas II. She or he will best know the preferred format. You cannot download interactives. Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society He “ordered his priests to look for the prickly pear cactus and build a temple in his honor. Battle of Tenochtitlan (May 22–August 13, 1521), military engagement between the Aztecs and a coalition of Spanish and indigenous combatants commanded by Hernan Cortes. The city was divided into four zones, or camps; each camp was divided into 20 districts (calpullis, Nahuatl calpōlli); and each calpulli, or 'big house', was crossed by streets or tlaxilcalli. The historic region of Mesoamerica comprises the modern day countries of northern Costa Rica,  Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, and central to southern Mexico. The macehualtin were commoners who lived outside the island city of Tenochtitlan. There are millions of lakes in the world. The city was connected to the mainland by bridges and causeways leading to the north, south, and west. Each calpulli (from Classical Nahuatl calpōlli, Nahuatl pronunciation: [kaɬˈpoːlːi], meaning "large house") had its own tiyanquiztli (marketplace), but there was also a main marketplace in Tlatelolco – Tenochtitlan's sister city. 13 km². This was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures. [7] In a letter to the Spanish king, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan was as large as Seville or Córdoba. Cortés gave him a necklace of crystals, placing it over his neck. This illustration describes how the Aztecs chose the location for Tenochtitlan. A devotee of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, under Fanciso Guetterrez Mexico became the nation of Aztlan, and Mexico City was given its former name, Te… [37], Tenochtitlan's main temple complex, the Templo Mayor, was dismantled and the central district of the Spanish colonial city was constructed on top of it. The great temple was destroyed by the Spanish during the construction of a cathedral. Where was it located? Privacy Notice |  Tenochtitlan was a Nahua altepetl located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. Lake Texcoco was ultimately drained, and much of Mexico City rests in the lake basin. Cultural traits that define the region include the domestication of maize, beans, avocado, and vanilla, and a common architectural style. article 23, census #211 p. 167. [7] The wealthy had houses of stone masonry with flat roofs. What a few people know is that, a few years after creating the settlement of Tenochtitlan, a group of dissatisfied settlers separated from the original group and founded, in 1337, the city of Tlatelolco, which would become a rival of Tenochtitlan. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Em… For thousands of years, this area was populated by groups such as the Olmec, Zapotec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec peoples. [34], There are a number of colonial-era pictorial manuscripts dealing with Tenochtitlan–Tlatelolco, which shed light on litigation between Spaniards and indigenous over property. The reconstruction involved the creation of a central area designated for Spanish use (the traza). According to legend, the Mexica founded Tenochtitlan after leaving their homeland of Aztlan at the direction of their god, Huitzilopochtli. When they saw this exact scene on an island (located in what was once Lake Texcoco), they interpreted it as a sign from their god and founded Tenochtitlan on that island. Dort, wo sich heute die Hauptstadt Mexicos befindet, war einmal die Hauptstadt der Azteken, Tenochtitlán. [39], In August 1987, archaeologists discovered a mix of 1,789 human bones five meters (16 ft 5 in) below street level in Mexico City. Huitzilopochtli directed them to build where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a snake. During this migration priests had carried a huge idol of the god Huitzilopochtli, who whispered directions, gave the Méxica their name and promised great wealth and prosperity if he was suitably worshipped. In just a century, the Aztec built an empire in the area now called central Mexico. Calpolli, meaning ‘big house’ is a group of families related by either kinship or proximity. The Spanish laid out the streets of the traza in a checker board pattern, with straight streets and plazas at intervals, whereas the indigenous portions of the city were irregular in layout and built of modest materials. The Spanish conquistadors, aided by an alliance of indigenous peoples, laid siege to the Aztec capital for 93 days, until the Mexica surrendered on August 13, 1521. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. characteristic to or of a specific place. Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec civilisation, situated on a raised islet in the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco, which is now the historic part of present-day Mexico City. Burial of the dead become difficult to impossible, due to the pervasiveness of the people's illness. When Cortés and his men invaded Tenochtitlan, Moctezuma II chose to welcome Cortés as an ambassador rather than risk a war which might quickly be joined by aggrieved indigenous people. The ruins, constructed over seven periods, were built on top of each other. A lake is a body of water that is surrounded by land. an ancient city and capital of the Aztec empire on the present site of Mexico City; razed by Cortés in 1521. Built on two islands, the area was extended using chinampas—small, artificial islands created above the waterline that were later consolidated. Tenochtitlán in British English. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Walking down the center came Moctezuma II, with two lords at his side, one his brother, the ruler of Iztapalapa. Tenochtitlán bylo rozlehlé město a zároveň mocný městský stát národa Aztéků. The disc is 3.25 meters (10 ft 8 in) in diameter, and is held at the Templo Mayor Museum.[38]. At Vera Cruz, the officer left in charge received a letter from Qualpopoca, the leader of Nueva Almería, asking to become a vassal of the Spaniards. When we saw so many cities and villages built in the water and other great towns on dry land we were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments (...) on account of the great towers and cues and buildings rising from the water, and all built of masonry. The people of Tenochtitlan began to starve and weaken. Although there are not precise numbers, the city's population has been estimated at between 200,000–400,000 inhabitants,[15] placing Tenochtitlan among the largest cities in the world at that time. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe. The Aztec built their capital city, Tenochtitlan, on Lake Texcoco. Today, the ruins of Tenochtitlan are in the historic center of the Mexican capital. [32] The Spaniards established a cabildo or town council, which had jurisdiction over the Spanish residents. Information and translations of Tenochtitlan in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. [35] An account with information about the war of Tenochtitlan against its neighbor Tlatelolco in 1473 and the Spanish conquest in 1521 is the Anales de Mexico y Tlatelolco, 1473, 1521–22. [23], Soon after arriving in Tenochtitlan, Cortés came up against problems. The Templo Mayor precinct was the location in which the Aztec practiced both bloodletting (offering one’s own blood) and human sacrifice. Cortés estimated it was twice the size of the city of Salamanca with about 60,000 people trading daily. Although the Spaniards were seeking gold, Moctezuma expressed that he had very little of the sort, but all of it was to be given to Cortés if he desired it. It formed a confederacy with Texcoco and Tlacopán and was the Aztec capital by the late 15th century. This is the true story of the ancient Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. Causeways that doubled as dikes connected the island to the mainland and separated freshwater from saltwater, protecting the chinampas. The higher officials in Tenochtitlan lived in the great palace complexes that made up the city. The image of an eagle eating a snake atop a prickly pear cactus can also be seen on the modern day Mexican flag. Tenochtitlan can be considered the most complex society in Mesoamerica in regard to social stratification. Am 8. To reach the province, the officers would have to travel through hostile land. In the center of the city were the public buildings, temples, and palaces. Then again, it's also the source of many fascinating rumors and half-truths, thanks to repression after the Spanish conquest. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. There were about 45 public buildings, including: the Templo Mayor, which was dedicated to the Aztec patron deity Huitzilopochtli and the Rain God Tlaloc; the temple of Quetzalcoatl; the tlachtli (ball game court) with the tzompantli or rack of skulls; the Sun Temple, which was dedicated to Tonatiuh; the Eagle's House, which was associated with warriors and the ancient power of rulers; the platforms for the gladiatorial sacrifice; and some minor temples. Ve své době šlo o největší město amerického … Scholars do not know where Aztlan was, but according to ancient accounts one of these Aztec groups, known as the Mexica, founded Tenochtitlán in 1325.The legend continues that Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, the sun and human sacrifice, is said to have directed the Mexica to settle on the island. Tlacohtin were individuals who chose indentured servitude to pay back a debt. The diet of the people of Tenochtitlan consisted mainly of beans and maize products, such as tortillas. The Aztecs chose the location of the city based on seeing an eagle atop a prickly-pear cactus. [16] Compared to the cities of Europe, only Paris, Venice and Constantinople might have rivaled it. They also ate tomatoes, squash, and avocados. As Cortés approached Tenochtitlan, the Tenochcah celebrated Toxcatl. [22] He was thrilled to have visitors of such stature. People were weak to the point that they could not move, nor obtain food and water. 20 uru mara t'aqa phaxsin 1325 maran utt'asinitayna, ukhamarak Aztecanakan chikja markapataynawa, kunawsatix q'ara ispañul jaqinakax purinipkatayn ukürkama,1521.. Jichhurunxa Tenochtitlan luratanakax Mejiku chuyma markankapuniwa. Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History, Storytelling. Surrounding the raised causeways were artificial floating gardens with canal waterways and gardens of plants, shrubs, and trees. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish. This beverage was sometimes fermented to create an alcoholic drink. "El sistema de mercado en Tenochtitlan." [25] Back in Tenochtitlan, Cortés detained Moctezuma and questioned him. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Cortes' men were in awe at the sight of the splendid city and many wondered if they were dreaming. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. "A Census of Native Middle American Pictorial Manuscripts". This sculpture was carved around 1470 under the rule of King Axayacatl, the predecessor of Tizoc, and is said to tell the history of the Mexicas and to prophesy the future.