The sixth, related to the previous point, is how to move away from a statist process and institutionalize civil society participation in all key areas of economic decisionmaking. reserve currency must work under democratic political guidance and pursue socially and ecologically responsible monetary policies; 0000002164 00000 n 0000004040 00000 n Hence, as long as power structure are not altered, we should not expect too much good to come out from institutions working on global regulation of e.g. 9. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. Situación de la integración eléctrica en América del Sur. CHALLENGES WITH INTEGRATING 15 SOVEREIGN STATES • The High Cost/Difficulty in doing business • Geography/ Inefficiencies in Transportation • Different legal traditions and systems • Restricted freedom of movement • No Currency convertibility • Lack of Political will • … 0000045567 00000 n “The Challenge of Regional Integration” ... to think about regional integration • A choice for regional integration is a choice for liberalism • Liberalism limited to the region • Integration can be deep or shallow, more or less liberal 3. Continuing the pre-crisis trend, the region’s trade and growth have expanded rapidly. 0000000856 00000 n Por Roberto Colmán, generic Coordinadora Nacional por la Integración y la Soberanía Energética, help Paraguay, * Presentacion en la “Conferencia Internacional de gobiernos y movimientos sociales “Integración regional: una oportunidad frente a las crisis” (Paraguay, 21 y 22 Julio 2009). The challenges of regional integration in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of Economic Partnership Agreements. The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa Mark Chingono* and Steve Nakana University of Zimbabwe, P. O. (4) Regional integration is possible but needs to be democratic: Regional cooperation in the South can provide protection from dysfunctional and failing global institutions. Globalization has ended in massive failure. We must, however, humbly admit that the Nordic identity has weakened in the last 15 years as we have been been overwhelmed by globalisation and EU-integration. The G-192 that met in June 2009 for a UN General Assembly on the financial crisis and its impact on development also needs strengthening. x��UoL[U?��6ڧPQ��;;�H'm����La0��`�H� State borders are becoming more porous than before, people are meeting and mixing more than before. * Regional, elected parliaments can play an important role in a new regionalism. 0 0000004645 00000 n For this and other reasons the primacy of economic policy instruments is a deep-seated feature of European integration. 13. 0000002383 00000 n In Africa, many such challenges affect poor peopleÕs lives in areas ranging from human security and mobility to rural livelihoods, trade, infrastructure, food security, environment La mejor interconexión eléctrica. The experience of the past years has shown clearly the inadequacy of the current structure, instruments and policies of global financial regulation and economic development. DESCARGUE LA PRESENTACION COMPLETA EN PDF, (Speech at the Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis”, look Universidad de Deportes, Asuncion, Paraguay, July 21-22, 2009.). It is extremely dangerous for democracy, ecology and social justice to make economic cooperation the heart of regional integration. challenges and prospects of regional integration in africa: a case study of east african community by david ngochi ngari reg. 264 0 obj <>stream Apart from this continental effort at integration, there are other regional bodies, that have arisen 6. “Neoliberalism died in 2008-2009. 0000005714 00000 n I recognise the enormous difficulties you are facing, including the current crisis in Honduras. I propose these as some of the key questions to guide our discussion of regional integration over the next two days. 0000004149 00000 n Even under the condition of functional interdependence globally of the competing blocs, climate change, development failures and resource depletion combined with nuclear proliferation and the evolution of new military technologies may easily lead to completely new types of wars with planetary consequences. * The European experience shows that regional cooperation can be effective in enhancing the power and  economic and social status of oppressed minorities and underprivileged regions. The example of the European Union shows that even when integration is rigidly designed to create a Union of just one kind of members the end-result will be something else. Regional trade arrangements also played a role. 2. Economic integration has intentionally been built as a device that will promote political and other integration later, behind the backs of the reluctant citizens. These can include for instance protection and support of micro and small enterprise as well as of local knowledge systems and forms or democracy, the launch of local and regional currencies with high social and ecological value, and so forth. 0000007621 00000 n That is not unexpected since the region comprises an array of historically developed Again, I do not want to overstate the case, but it appears to me that all countries in Latin Ameica could gain in economic and cultural terns from deepened cooperation between them and also with other Southern regions, even if it has to happen at the cost of laxer links to Europe and North America. xref 7. George W. Bush goes down in the books as the greatest socialiser of banks and enterprises in world history. It may be helpful in this regard to think of the global North in a new way: not as the developed regions that have made it, but as regions suffering from serious development failures. When it goes away we can see again clearly that the modern state in most countries remains committed to a development model in which a mix of capitalist, growth dependent exploitative economy and consumerist, individualistic, civilisational values remains central. <<5E04D95EF02C1F4A979590C56857CBCC>]>> Financial regulation remains weak, tax havens still work as usual and even the Tobin tax awaits its implementation. 15, No. The most interesting efforts at integration, in the view of many, are those taking place in Latin America, among them Trade Treaty of the Peoples and ALBA or the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas to which eight countries now belong. 0000036889 00000 n The main lesson of the past winter is that neo-liberalism was always only a radical fashion, a tip of the iceberg. In reality the question of regional integration is also related to an extraordinary variety of economic, political and socio-cultural issues. no. ;�Rξezw$]�[xi��!�V���4�L��Z��}�7=����3/��q�����٣S�0�3�>r����O{'��� Ŷ��j�^r�G��W��ŵ��hc3&�{�`�j,�.�8#P���L���!���ڈ�]�F�gr��Z�`��pbQ��"ˏ��l�p���bt��~�����x�'��a����F���}����`�3����*�փ>�#-;yG�m In global efforts large corporations and states still have a relative advantage over other actors. Chapter III examines the external challenges facing the region today, particularly as regards its trade relations with Europe, the United States, Canada and Latin America. Drawing on analysis and inspiration coming from the 18th century German enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant and others, the idea has been to promote peace through functional integration of the national economies in the region. It remains open, however, what the implications are for the politics of global governance and the role of regional and national politics. Challenges of Regional Integration in the East Africa Community. This year 100 years have passed since Gandhi wrote his definitive statement, the pivotal pamphlet Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule on board a ship between Britain and South  Africa. �㙆��W�8�%Ѫ~�a :��N���F���@�s�`���L��6>��yd78M,x���Qiej�q� �_�����ACy�4!��csb�#G!����Y*�f�˩��{u]����� The lesson for other regions is again negative. Yet we cannot romanticize these efforts. It is true in a limited sense. It should also lead the world out of its multiple crises on the long-term. March 3-4, 2016. Journal of Social Sciences: Vol. Globally the political debates seem to be moving from a discussion of separate crises to a discussion of inter-connected crises: of the finance sector, the world economy, political governance, food, water, development and climate. 237 28 The EU is now the most advanced model of regional integration globally. 1. In order to curb excess corporate influence strong measures must be taken at all times. Regions are then more than likely to develop into competing, protectionist blocs forming strategic alliances. Soberanía hidroeléctrica y la propuesta de Chile. In building regionalism for a new internationalism it is essential that we go beyond the current logic of competetive identity politics. Another response, complementary to this, has been to build regional associations or regional blocs. ��Ő<8gГ�#G98�T�;�T�l�a�U��9��1����#'&g@'�ڒ���3��Y��h��d��Ȓ�����py����xX����;���B�l�ۂwٳ��o+�GYXS55� I�w��"4fZ��;˿-�C΄ڒ�W�3/�wot��� The new politics of global security that we need, must, as Gandhi and others have clearly seen long back, be linked to the construction of pro-people and environmentally sound development models. Special care must be taken at every step to keep economic policies within democratic control and to avoid spill-over from economic policies on social protection, environmental protection and other vital policy areas: Since the 1980s the main left and centre argument in favour of deepening European integration has no longer been the argument from peace. 14. Four: the political logic of democratic regionalism by the people and for the people should be pluralistic and decentred. I wish to bring out some lessons for regional integration from the fifty years of building the European Union: (1) Peace ambitions may undermine democracy: 0000005605 00000 n Free movement of capital, labour and services have been seen as equally natural parts of economic integration on liberal premises. I suggest that a maximum size of corporations is considered as well as sealings on individual ownership and control of corporate activity. Cogestión paritaria. The regional arena is too often considered to be only complementary to nation states and global institutional arrangements and global governance. The European Union has been seen by many as a much needed instrument for improved global governance of the economy at first, and now increasingly also of climate change, migration etc. Banks are bailed out and the costs of enterprise failures are carried by tax-payers. In consequence, the more the economic instruments have developed the more they have dominated over other policy areas in which decision-making has been more confined to the national level. new IT, nano-technology and genetic engineering make 21st century questions of war and peace more intractable than before. In this a people-to-people cooperation and diplomacy, as pursued for instance in the World Social Forum and by a multitude of innovative smaller groups and movementsduring the past years, can play an important role. The evolution of constitutionalism in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe: some lessons for the post-Soviet space. It has been seen, first, as a peace project and, secondly, increasingly in later years, as a project for benign, political governance of corporate driven globalisation. The sense of competition fosters widely felt anxiety. Regional cooperation presents major opportunities if the physical and cultural mobility of peoples in the region and between them is enhanced. For these reasons new instruments for political regulations are called for. Sumario H�4�W[SQ��AQ������ The main ideas are familiar to all by now. 0000002120 00000 n When the peoples are in effective control of the balance of powers different countries will participate in different ways in regional cooperation, taking exceptions as they see fit and forming sub-units of tighter cooperation as they see fit. In actual fact different European countries have different between them quite different kinds of membership in the EU both politically and juridically. Regional integration has accompanied global economic liberalisation efforts. ASEAN’s idea of integration is to see it as a step towards full-scale globalization, a process that is termed “open regionalism.”. 3. He is the author of 15 books, the latest of which is The Food Wars (New York: Verso, 2009). Thomas Wallgren However, his work dealt neither on how cultural identity will be achieved nor its challenges as regional goals. 0000009033 00000 n Beneficios si hay integración eléctrica solidaria. Obama brings the US back on a more Keynesian track and into multilateral cooperation, but his victory was more due to the catastrophic results of Bush’s politics than of a desire for fundamental redirection of US power. For regional integration in Africa to be a success, Africa’s leaders will have to move beyond grand gestures and abstract visions. 0000002594 00000 n The strong efforts by trade unions, left governments, environmentalists, women’s movements and others to change the balance of forces in Europe have so far met with, at best, half-success. * Regional cooperation may have democratizing effects on the relations between big and small countries. integration is that the great ma jority of Regional Integration Arrangements (RIAs) involve n eighboring countries (hence the term “regional”). 4. A. in Africa: Problems and Prospects. A commitment to open regionalism and deep integration would help address some of these problems and create a healthy basis for regional and global trade integration. + The second is common languages: Spanish and Portuguese are closely related. regional integration in Africa Regional cooperation and integration are deemed vital to tackle development challenges that cannot be solved at the national level. These can emerge on the basis of the variety of sustainable life-styles, democracies and civilisational values existing today especially in the global South. In the golden age of the Nordic model, the small North European area that I come from, had disproportionate global significance in pro-people politics. A decade ago, there was much discussion about when Asia might achieve full economic integration, including … `�*@,��w��e��m;��J( �ņM0/t��h57�7R��r+�3^\hz���Y��i��k�4)�?�7�'���O�$�I$ߒZ�V��E�a35�S�:�s:V���6ɧO��U1Di�xUx U|27.^/�OCS��7|$m=���t������\�=~�ɪ���iOWK�}�m��"e4�3�����M.? *�c�z��L=�]�3BYjnXJc���L,�^I}>���“���yZ�����$3Csa�*�`�?v�K&~i�3� %��s�y��;���twN\T�ߌ�s��bK'�Ʌ�v�2��N��D���~�*KrMm�6�8|��#�b�F���Ƶ��x��c�C aJʼ����Sbu8��o��ȡzh�����G��� u��0������x���AV��ز� ��l�?�,f0��6P��&�2��,�_��m�Z�Z�H��1��T0��2��d�q}O��Z�Z�V��Ճ�,�-�^ϔݳq��%`�`$@�Uk��h�f���d �A�u���T���\V����!�����n@JW�,^���x�տ~��.�~jH��a� – All references are given for purposes of identification and transparency only. Amortización de la deuda de Itaipú. Integration has proceeded on the initiative and under the leadership of bureaucratic elites. Having said this let me stress that our efforts must complement and give life to, but not undermine the UN centred multilateral system. It is clear that people, states and corporations in Europe and America must be pressed to responsibility and that we must pay for the mess we have caused during five hundred years through exploitation of other continents and mother earth. If other regions follow the EU model and see regional integration of foreign policy, security policy and trade policy as an instrument for selfish and hegemonic ambitions the ensuing world order may easily end up repeating the calamities of what we in Europe call the westphalian order of competing, sovereign nation states, at a new, higher level. Especially strong integration -- like the European Union -- can lead to the loss of unique minority cultures within a region. My fourth suggestion is that all political reforms and initiatives now of the short and medium term should be shaped so as not to hamper but rather support a civilisational shift in which the ultimate goals and ideals of development are reconsidered. *Walden Bello is a member of the House of Representatives of the Republic of the Philippines, president of the Freedom from Debt Coalition, and senior analyst at the Bangkok-based institute Focus on the Global South. Los ejemplos de Panamá y Bolivia. endstream endobj 244 0 obj <>stream The industrial growth centred development model that first emerged in Europe and North America in the 18th to 20th century needs to be seriously reconsidered. Box MP167 Mount Pleasant Harare, Zimbabwe. CARICOM: Challenges and Opportunities for Caribbean Economic Integration Summary In 1973, the smaller, largely English-speaking countries of the Eastern Caribbean launched the Caribbean Comm unity and Common Market (CARICOM), an integration plan intende d to coordinate a nd enhance the collective economic and social development of 15 countries. The global South must take the lead. Developed and developing countries have embraced regional integration because of its perceived benefits in increasing trade and enhancing sustainable growth (Mansfield and Milner 1997; Milner and Kubota 2005).However, the proliferation of regional integration, especially in the developing world, has … And the OAU had some successes and challenges, but the exigencies necessitated a shift in the paradigms undergirding the integration effort. Without these impressive ideas European integration could not have been brought to its present level. Focus more on South-South Trade Let me close on a more positive note with some recommendations drawn from the European experience: * Regional integration needs to be built democratically. European and Eurasian integration initiatives: constitutional challenges. This much should now be uncontroversial. H��S�N�A~�}����p��=_bEKcl*[���@� �M�����դ�&�2��wF 2. To this end, there are four  fundamental conditions: In the EU the centralising and liberalising Lissabon treaty is back on track. In the global arenas, at WTO, the World Bank or even in the climate negotiations positive news are yet to come. It is important for us all that this political and cultural resurgence is placed at the centre of regional integration here. For this reason pro-people regional cooperation should systematically promote cultures and economies of sustainability and peace. Thirdly regional political instruments may play a huge role in achieving at the regional level governance services and functions that are not available at the global level. 3, pp. Less attention has, for understandable reasons, been paid to the contribution of Europe to global security. Together the cooperating regions may make historic contributions to a post-colonial and post-imperial, pluricentric and peaceful world order. Because of the post-war technocratic logic of EU-integration the democratic crisis in Europe is also very deep-seated. The legitimacy and need for non-state political cooperation is obvious and  in regional cooperation as well tax-payers money and other public resources should not be exclusively spent on state and market driven integration. 0000050482 00000 n The paper then identifies the challenges to regional integration in West Africa by looking at some institutions of ECOWAS. Nevertheless, as we have seen during the past months the demise of neo-liberalism does not mean the end of capitalism nor does it automatically change the balance of power or fundamental policies. Again I hope that I do not offend the many people with other  languages as their first language if I say that the conditions for a common public space, and hence for radical regional democracy is more happy in Latin America than in some other regions. * The world has seen the emergence of many special economic zones lately. Since the early 1950s the emergence of, first the European Economic Community, EEC, and later, its sequel, the European Union, has been the dynamic centre of European  integration. Donors and Institutions Supporting Regional Cooperation and [1] The author is the secretary of Coalition for comprehensive democracy, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam in Finland. Recent key developments, such as the text and ratification process of the Lisbon Treaty, the formation of Europe’s new global economic policy, and the struggles over the working time, services and chemical legislation at the European level, show that corporate interests and narrowly defined economic goals still tend to dominate EU-policies. Both ideas are now in a crisis. Challenges of Regional Integration By Thomas Wallgren * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay) Three: the peoples must always have effective control, before the fact and after the fact, of the balance of powers between regional and national authorities. 4. 2. 12. endstream endobj 238 0 obj <> endobj 239 0 obj <> endobj 240 0 obj <> endobj 241 0 obj <>/Shading<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 242 0 obj <> endobj 243 0 obj <>stream People’s Agenda for Alternative Regionalisms, * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay). The mechanisms to achieve this need careful attention. �O���.���!�a��`ݴ0� ��Y��ř4�g0A��!�&��pj���O�s�=���͗��s~��s~�wn� ������s Literature review Africa’s challenges call for pragmatism and a sense of urgency in action. Accepted 12 September, 2008 Regional integration is increasingly being accepted as essential in facilitating economic and political development. However, some of the more prominent ones have either not moved beyond a primitive stage, as in the case of SAARC in South Asia, or have been based on neoliberal principles, like ASEAN in Southeast Asia. It has the largest internal market, the most ambitious common political instruments and the tightest juridical integration. This should not be seen as a problem. In recent years the increasingly lively alliances throughout the region of indigenous and other emancipatory movements, that has given one country a president coming from the indigenous movements and another country a constitution that recognises Mother Earth is of particular interest for people on all continents who are searching for new political tools, ideas and visions. The first is how to build regional blocs that go beyond trade to include industrial policy, a shared agricultural policy, macroeconomic coordination, and technology sharing. 6. Some elements of the ALBA perspective, as expressed by some people, reflect the perspective of 1950’s-style national capitalist industrialization, which is probably not suitable for the current period. 0000455612 00000 n Regional integration has a final non-economic disadvantage. In recent years the democratic deficit in Europe has become obvious to all. He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. level integration. 0000042727 00000 n Protecting the rule of law in post-Soviet states: the relevance of European and Eurasian integration %%EOF 0000006829 00000 n The global record seems to be that industrial growth economies are not capable of overcoming poverty and deprivation everywhere. It will take time to overcome it. MERCOSUR evolved from open regionalism to postliberal regionalism in the course of the first 15 years of the 21st century. The people have been seen as prone to aggressive sentiment. Too often only the global and national level are recognized as relevant political arenas. One item that fascinates us is the use of barter as a key method of trade, for instance, the exchange of Venezuelan oil for Bolivian soybeans or of Venezuelan oil for medical services rendered by Cuban volunteers. For this reason the EU carries a vast democratic deficit. * Economic policies of regions should learn from the failures of the neo-liberal experiments in the EU and elsewhere: + A Latin American Central Bank issuing a common currencie that may in the long run function as a (regional?) Civil society must not only provide a check to both the state and the market, but it must be the leading force in the new economics. The Indian Ocean is an increasingly important component of the world economy. 1. ��6�}������ Ϋ�m����p2�,��]�j3���z�/4-`@1:gQ���z�$�bݣb!7.v˟�X�S�m���eĠ[��Q��$q�y��"�&K��ѥ��du�-������i�^m�n�����L������k#�jk���ʓ/Q%-�5����..�g���s]�ó�A�ꢔڿT��Ɉ/�.�َ�t-�Yf�ŢZM���]&)s�,� �5 (In the EU this is still not the case!) In Bolivia there seems to be encouraging experiments along this line that could serve as a model for further work. 213-218. + The fourth is the mere fact that Latin Ametican efforts towards regional integration can learn from the European experience, positively and negatively. 5. In decolonising development, art iculating new visions of good life (buen vivir) and building radical democracy the movements South America are today a great source of energy and hope for people on all continents. He is affiliated with the Brussels based organisation Corporate Europe Observatory, chair of the Finnish Refugee Council and co-chair of Alternative to the EU – Finland. These experiences are at an early stage and yet they already contain lessons for other parts of the world. Technological changes have made possible deep changes in the economy. The global trend in the last years and months is not that neo-liberal capitalism is replaced by socialism, a new green politics or even social liberalism but, unfortunately, by authoritarian capitalism.